Basic Features of an Electric Motor
An electric motor is a household necessity. An electromechanical device that works on the principle of converting electrical energy to mechanical energy, an electric motor can be used for various purposes like rotating pump impellers, fans or blowers, or driving a compressor and using the power to lift materials.
At home, electric motor is used in commonplace appliances like mixers, drills, and fans. Motorised garage door and microwave oven also uses electric motors. From there to the big industrial machines, electric motors are the heart of about seventy percent of the total electrical load carried out in the industrial world.
Common features of electric motors
The main working principle and power generating mechanism that is used to power up an electric motor is the same across all types. Most electric motors consist of: An electric current that is placed in a magnetic field that creates a force around the current carrying wire. When the current carrying wire is bent into a loop, then the magnetic field experienced by both sides of the looped wire is in opposite directions and thus the wire behaves like a magnet with opposite poles. This pair of opposing forces creates a turning force known as torque, which is used to move mechanical parts of the machine.
For the production of a more uniform magnetic field, several loops of the current carrying wire are looped on an armature. Huge magnetic coils called field coils are used to produce a large and uniform magnetic field.